After Jerusalem fell to the Muslims in 638, Christians continued to worship at their churches for centuries. This remained true until the days of al-Hakim (966–1021), whose tenure was marked by persecutions and religious intolerance. As the sixth caliph, or Muslim religious authority, in the Fatimid dynasty, which ruled from Egypt, al-Hakim ordered the destruction of churches throughout Fatimid territory, including the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. His non-Muslim subjects faced either conversion to Islam or expulsion from their homeland. The destruction of the Holy Sepulchre under al-Hakim became a call to war during the First Crusade of 1099, although by this time the church had been rebuilt.