According to Ronny Reich and Eli Shukron (“Light at the End of the Tunnel—Warren’s Shaft Theory of David’s Conquest Shattered,” BAR 25:01; also available on our Web site:, the tunnel system that now provides access to the top of Warren’s Shaft was never intended to lead there; it was reached only by accident in the eighth century B.C., nearly 300 years after David conquered the city. The tunnel actually went on to two huge towers protecting a pool of water near the Gihon Spring.