This inscription has long been known and was first published in 1880. It is famous because of its reference to Asiatics or the Hyksos invaders of Egypt. No one previous to Professor Goedicke however, has related the inscription to the Exodus.

The inscription was translated by Sir Alan H. Gardiner, the dean of hieroglyphic translators, in an article published in 1946 (“Davies’ copy of the Great Speos Artemidos Inscription,” Journal of Egyptian Archaeology Vol. 32, p. 43.). Gardiner referred to the inscription as a “difficult text” and concluded his translation with these words: “I cannot refrain from once more stressing the highly speculative nature of my results.”

The inscription is located high up on the facade of a rock temple built by Hatshepsut and dedicated to the local lioness goddess Pakhet. The temple is located at Speos Artemidos (known locally as Istabl Antar), just south of Beni Hassan in Middle Egypt.—Ed.