One modern investigator, Joe Nickell, reproduced many aspects of the shroud image not by scorching a cloth but by applying a mixture of myrrh and aloes. In the November 1979 issue of Popular Photography, Nickell describes how he molded a wet cloth to the surface of a bas relief and then, when the cloth was dry, daubed on the myrrh and aloes mixture. Nickell produced a negative image on the cloth, an image that had no brushmarks and appeared only on the surface of the cloth.