Courtesy the Biblioteca Medicea-Laurenziana

In this frontispiece of an eighth-century copy of the sixth-century Latin translation of the Bible, Codex Grandior, by Cassiodorus, the prophet Ezra writes in a codex. The shelves hold Cassiodorus’s nine-volume edition of the Bible, the Codex Novices, and a copy of St. Jerome’s Vulgate rests at the prophet’s feet.