Department of Art and Archaeology, Princeton University

The cryptic word “GOLB” and a Jewish menorah are engraved on this small stone fragment found at Antioch in the 1930s excavations. Although the word is written in Greek letters, it does not resemble any known Greek term; its association with the menorah has led some scholars to conclude that it is a Greek transliteration of a Hebrew name or title.

Despite numerous literary accounts of the importance and prosperity of Antioch’s Jews, few physical traces of their presence remain. The “GOLB” tablet (which has vanished since its discovery) and a lead curse tablet referring to “Iao” (biblical Yahweh) are the only objects discovered in Antioch that are associated with the city’s ancient Jewish community.