Österreichische Nationalbibliothek

Austrian archaeologist and classical scholar Emanuel Löwy (1857‒1938) was one of Freud’s lifelong friends. While Freud was developing his psychoanalytic techniques, Löwy was excavating at Ephesus and in Greece; he was later appointed the first full professor of archaeology and art history at the University of Rome. During his frequent visits to Vienna, Löwy would regale Freud with stories about the burgeoning field of archaeology and authenticate Freud’s most recent antiquities purchases.