Photo courtesy of the Palestine Exploration Fund

Philadelphia’s Odeum (shown here) and Nymphaeum (see photo of Nymphaeum), as seen in photos taken in 1867. The Odeum was an enclosed theater adjacent to the large open theater shown at the beginning of this article. When 20th-century archaeologists arrived in Amman, nothing remained of these structures (or of numerous other structures known only from old photographs, many taken by the British Palestine Exploration Fund during an 1867 survey); their remains had been dismantled and used as building material by settlers from the east who began arriving in Amman in the 1880s. The Odeum has since been reconstructed from old photographs like this one.