Erich Lessing

The stern countenance of Theodosius I—depicted on this 10-inch-high, fourth-century A.D. marble bust—seems to express the Roman emperor’s reputation as a staunch defender of Christianity. Originally a Spanish officer in the Roman army, Theodosius ruled the eastern empire from 379 to 395 A.D. His edict of 393 A.D. forbade all pagan worship and festivities, including the Olympic games, and marked an end to a millennium-long tradition.