Hasmonean fortifications are in the foreground. Part of the fortification is built against the older tower in the background, which dates from the Judean monarchy. Note the difference in masonry style. The Hasmonean fortification is made of beautifully squared large ashlars, laid in header and stretcher fashion. (A row of headers can be seen in the lower left.) Some of these handsome ashlars—presumably the ones which were exposed to public view—can be seen to have well-chiselled bosses and margins. The tower in the background, on the other hand, is made of less well-trimmed, smaller blocks; the spaces between the ill-fitting blocks are filled with chinking stones.

Note the blocks inside the Hasmonean fortification, which presumably fell there when the wall was destroyed. There they lay until uncovered by the excavator’s spade.

The figures at top and right give an idea of the height of the extant remains of the now-truncated Judean tower.