Jebusite (pre-10th century B.C.) and Hezekiah’s (8th century B.C.) Water Systems.
1. Spring Gihon
2. Modern house
3. Spring-filled tunnel
4. Water chamber
5. Shaft
6. Place from which bucket was lowered to water below
7. Horizontal tunnel
8. Stepped-tunnel
9. Entrance to Jebusite tunnel
10. Jebusite wall
11. Probable course of Jebusite wall
12. Successful shaft and tunnel system
13. First unsuccessful Jebusite shaft
14. Hezekiah’s Tunnel (8th century B.C.)
15. Tunnel common to Hezekiah’s and Jebusite systems
16. Pool of Siloam
Jerusalem—Before the 10th century B.C., the Jebusites settled near the plentiful water supply of the Spring Gihon (1) on the Hill of Ophel. They constructed a water system with four elements: a tunnel (3) cut into the hill to direct water from the spring into a chamber (4) within the hill; a stepped or sloping tunnel (8) cut downward from street level (9) behind the Jebusite city wall (10); an almost horizontal tunnel (7) passing under the city wall to a point above the spring filled chamber (4), and a shaft (5) connecting the end of the upper tunnel to the chamber below. Water carriers could stand at the top of the shaft (6) and lower buckets to bring up water.
In the 8th century B.C. King Hezekiah built a graded 1750 foot tunnel (14) under the city. It carried the water of the Spring Gihon (1), located outside the city wall, to a pool (16) located inside the city. A portion of this tunnel (15) nearest to the spring was part of the earlier Jebusite system.