Hazor—In this aerial view, the reader can appreciate the bottleshape of the tell. As seen here, the “bottle” is upside down. The dark depression in the light excavated area of the tell is the entrance to the shaft which was carved from bedrock in the 9th century B.C. At times of siege, the inhabitants of Hazor could draw water, without emerging from the protective city walls, by descending this shaft to a connecting tunnel which led underground to the water chamber.

At the narrow end of the “bottle” is a small part of the glacis which enclosed the “lower city,” inhabited only in the Middle Bronze Age (18th through 13th centuries B.C.); to the left of the glacis is a dark area which was once a moat.