Joint Expedition to Caesarea

Herodian masons, working from opposite ends, cut this 6-mile-long tunnel through the bedrock of Mt. Carmel. At its eastern end it gathers the water of underground springs. At its western end it joins the eastern channel of the high-level aqueduct that carries the water south an additional 6 ½ miles along the shore to its destination at Caesarea. Along the left-hand wall of the tunnel, above the dark line, a series of niches in the rock are visible. These held oil lamps to illuminate the tunnel as masons chiseled away the limestone.