Dan Cole

Semicircular tower and wall at Arad. Dating from the Early Bronze Age (2850 B.C. to 2650 B.C.), this tower was one of many encircling the city, spaced at 65- to 80-foot intervals. In the background, another section of the once continuous city wall is seen; the foundations of some of the other towers project from the wall. From inside the city, the towers were entered through ground level doorways in the city wall. Steps or ladders inside the towers led to a walkway on top of the wall. An enemy warrior attempting to scale the city wall would be exposed to the arrows of defending archers standing on top of the wall or, at a good aiming angle, on top of one of the towers.