Courtesy Yizhar Hirschfeld

Mu’awiyah, founder of the Umayyad dynasty, inscribed his name and good works in the Hall of Fountains in 663 A.D., just two years after he began to rule in Damascus. The good works named in these nine lines are renovations to the baths, probably carried out after an earthquake. The archaeological evidence confirms the inscription—Mu’awiyah spared no effort to restore the baths. The marble slab measures roughly 30 inches by 18 inches and is the most recently uncovered of the many inscriptions in the Hall of Fountains.