Moshe Weinberg, Michal Roche-Ben Ami and Israel Finkelstein

Mighty bulwark. A deep excavation trench cut into the Middle Bronze IIC (1650–1550 B.C.) glacis at Shiloh, right and left, reveals the impressive height and girth of this artificial earthen ramp around the tell’s perimeter. The ramp was built on the slope of the mound to reinforce the stone wall, center back, that ran around the upper edge of the tell. Together, the earthen glacis and stone wall served as a massive fortification.

The lower wall immediately behind the woman is the retaining wall of the glacis. It was built in order to prevent the earthen ramp from sliding down the slope. About six feet behind this retaining wall stands the city fortification wall; on the other side of the stone city wall are the remains of the settlement of Shiloh.