Matson Collection/The Library of Congress

In another view of “Golgotha”, taken at the end of the 19th century by the famed Jerusalem photographer G. Eric Matson, only a few tombstones dot the hilltop. At the far left, the flying buttresses of St. Étienne’s church mark the location of this monastery complex. On the grounds of St. Étienne’s, a flight of steps leads underground to one of the burial caves. In the Iron Age (eighth or seventh century B.C.) when these burial caves and the cave of the Garden Tomb were hewn out of the hill, they were all part of the same cemetery.