Il Santo Sepolcro Di Gerusalemme, Vol. II, plate 3

Plan of the Constantinian complex from the fourth century. Black areas indicate extant remains. Dotted structures are those assumed but not found. The rotunda, with columns and pillars surrounding Jesus’ tomb and three niches in the outer wall, is shaded yellow. This rotunda probably resembled the one in Rome (see photograph), part of a mausoleum for Constantine’s daughter. The Holy Garden with a colonnaded portico on three sides is shaded green. An eight-gated wall separates the rotunda from the Holy Garden. (These gates are indicated by arrows.) In the southeast corner of the Holy Garden is the rock of Golgotha or Calvary (see arrow). On the other side of the Holy Garden is the basilica church (shaded blue) with a single apse toward the rotunda, and a nave with two aisles on either side. In front of the basilica is an atrium or narthex. A set of steps leads down to the city’s major north-south thoroughfare, the Cardo. At the eastern end of the basilica church, Nos. 307, 308 and 309 indicate subterranean cavities that—in part— became chapels at the time of the Crusaders. Several features of Constantine’s church are represented schematically in the Madaba map (see photograph).