Wilson/Picturesque Palestine

Archaeological exploration of the Holy City proceeded apace with the city’s modernization in the 19th century.

The Warren expedition of 1867, led by 27-year-old Royal Engineer Lieutenant Charles Warren, sought to find remains of Solomon’s Temple and other ancient structures. Unable to excavate on the Temple Mount, Warren instead sank deep vertical shafts outside the Temple Mount walls, like this one at the southwest corner of the enclosure. The vertical shafts were connected to each other through an intricate series of horizontal galleries.

Warren’s burrowing gave him views of the ancient walls and gateways. Archaeologists today still study the observations and drawings published by Warren in Underground Jerusalem.