Joseph Kohlbeck

Shroud fiber after immersion in Cargille oil. To investigate the red particles on the fibers without interference from the Mylar tape, some fibers were separated from the tape and mounted in Cargille oil. When they were observed two and one half months later, the red particles on the fibers had changed to black, and a yellow exudate appeared, as shown here. Closer examination of the larger black particles showed what appeared to be nuclei resembling those in cells. Observed after one year, the nucleated black particles became colorless and difficult to see.

Kohlbeck concludes that the observed changes could only have occurred in organic particles—particles from a living system. Probably, he says, they are blood-related. The changed particles cannot be inorganic iron oxide, even though, as Kohlbeck acknowledges, iron oxide contaminants are present in small quantities elsewhere.