Judith Dekel

Ninth-century B.C. Israelite fortress (X). Rebuilt following Pharaoh Shishak’s destruction of the previous tenth-century fortress, this one includes features that enhance its defensibility. A solid wall averaging 12 feet in thickness surrounds the fortress. Sawtooth insets on the outer wall surface may indicate perpendicular cross walk—a strengthening device within the outer wall. A sloping earth glacis, supported at its lowermost outer edge by a low revetment wall, added additional strength to the fortress walls and made them more difficult to approach. The glacis helped prevent natural erosion of the steep hillside and enemy undermining of the walls.