Werner Braun

Protecting Canaanite Arad, an eight foot-wide city wall curves towards the hill where Israelites built a fortress settlement centuries later, now restored and visible on the summit. A semicircular tower protrudes from the wall, far right.

In a natural depression between the Canaanite and Israelite cities, the Early Bronze Age Canaanite settlers collected rain and runoff water. The Israelites dug a well in this same depression, tapping an underground water source. Israclites toiled up the hill bearing well water to a channel beneath the citadel wall that led to the fortress cistern.