Hershel Shanks

Offsets and insets along the fortification wall at Arad recede into the distance at left. Projecting from the wall like sawreeth, the offsets, or salients, allowed the defenders to fire on the attackers from a second direction: from the flank as well as from the front. The Arad fortress was built and rebuilt over a 500-year span (tenth–sixth centuries B.C.); the restoration seen here represents its appearance in the ninth century B.C.