Garo Nalbandian

The northern part of the eastern wall. Ritmeyer identifies the lowest course visible above ground on either side of the outside of the Golden Gate as sixth-century B.C.E. masonry from the time of Nehemiah, characterized by large, bulging bosses. The photo shows a closeup of this course from the north looking toward the Golden Gate. The courses above this date to a later period. Note that this lowest course ends at the bottom right. This is the offset. North of the offset (to the right) is Herodian masonry, marking the point where the northern Herodian extension begins.