British Museum

Ramesses III, on the right in this detail from Papyrus Harris I, tells the Egyptian god Amon-Re of the “prayers, praises, adorations, laudations, mighty deeds and benefactions” done in his lifetime. Ninety-five percent of the document deals with gifts and lists, but the last section tells of Ramesses’ victories over his enemies. Most scholars, including author Itamar Singer, consider this part of Papyrus Harris I an accurate record of the Philistines’ fate at the hands of the Egyptians.