Courtesy Thomas Holland

A telltale hole for reins pierces the muzzle of this clay horse figurine, signaling that this represents a domesticated horse. Found at Tell Es-Sweyhat—about 200 miles from Damascus, Syria—the figurine probably dates to 2300 B.C., making it the world’s oldest sculpture of a domesticated horse. The figurine measures 5 inches long, 3 inches high and 2 inches wide. Several model chariots found at the site, dated to the same period, suggest that the figurine was modeled on a horse that drew chariots.