The Gaza synagogue plan. Although the exact plan of the synagogue remains uncertain, the building is apparently the largest ancient synagogue ever found in the Holy Land, measuring approximately 85 by 100 feet. Excavations suggest that four rows of columns divided the space into a wide nave flanked by two aisles on each side. Three entrances in the westernmost wall, at bottom, provided access to the building. Separated from the nave by chancel screens, an apse for the Torah ark projected from the eastern wall of the synagogue, at top.

Sumptuous mosaics originally covered the floor of the synagogue: Medallions containing wild animals covered at least one of the outer aisles; the mosaic of King David lay in the nave near the central entrance. Marble paving slabs, some shown in the plan, later covered all but the David scene. David was probably in the corner of a large mosaic floor.