Courtesy Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

Papa George Reisner, shown in Cairo in 1935, directed excavations at Biblical Samaria from 1907–1909. The first U.S.-sponsored dig in the Holy Land uncovered remains of the Israelite capital established by King Omri in the ninth century B.C.E., as well as the city built there by Herod the Great (37–4 B.C.E).