Sonia Halliday Photographs

Manubial Temples. The Colosseum was not the only grand structure in Rome to be funded from the spoils of victory. It was commonplace for emperors in many periods to use their battle-gained riches to build new temples. Both the Imperial Forum, which encompassed the forums of the emperors (including Augustus’s Forum, which held his Temple to Mars Ultor), and the Roman Forum, which included the Temple of Concord and the Temple of Castor and Pollux (the three columns visible left of center) were partially funded ex manubiis, “from the spoils” of war. (The Colosseum and the Arch of Titus can be seen at far left, in the background of the photograph; see plan for the relationship of the buildings to each other.)