Moshe Kochavi/Tel Aviv University Institute of Archaeology

The Egyptian governor’s residence. One of Kochavi’s major discoveries was a two-story building (shown during excavation) from the 13th century B.C., which served as the seat of the local Egyptian ruler. The structure’s 5-foot-thick walls enclosed an area of 3,600 square feet. The second floor no longer survives; a fire destroyed the residence and sealed debris from the upper story within the ground floor—a boon to excavators. Kochavi’s teacher once noted, “Archaeologists are sadists. We love earthquakes and conflagrations.”