Palestine Exploration Fund, courtesy of curator Felicity Cobbing

Warren’s explorations of Jerusalem were avidly followed by the English public. The watercolor illustrations included with this article were created by William “Crimea” Simpson for the Illustrated London News from 1869 through 1872. (Simpson had earlier gained fame for his depictions of the Crimean War.) Here, two men examine the foundation stones of the retaining wall of the Temple Mount.