Garo Nalbandian

A key test regarding Warren’s Shaft is shown in these photos. At left, a bucket with a flashlight inside is lowered from the top of the shaft. The bumpy sides of the shaft cause the bucket to gyrate as it descends—a poor way to collect water. But dropped straight down from a platform (right), the bucket can be pulled up the center of the shaft—a good way to obtain water, Faust argues.