Bruce and Kenneth Zuckerman, West Semitic Research, with the collaboration of the Ancient Biblical Manuscript Center/courtesy Russian National Library

“Deborah and Barak, Son of Avinoam, Sang on that day…” Judges 5, shown above from the 11th-century A.D. Leningrad Codex, includes the Song of Deborah, which scholars agree is one of the oldest texts in the Hebrew Bible. In the accompanying article, Richard S. Hess examines the proper names in Judges and argues that the names point to the text’s antiquity.