Alinari/Art Resource, NY

Godfrey of Bouillon (1060–1100), a claimed descendant of Charlemagne, the first Holy Roman Emperor, was one of the principal leaders of the armies of the First Crusade. Godfrey, shown here in “The Nine Heroes,” a 15th-century fresco from Manta Castle in Saluzzo, Italy, led the first Crusader contingent to breech the walls of Jerusalem, on July 15, 1099. Elected leader of the Kingdom of Jerusalem he refused the title of King. He died in Jerusalem the following year. Romanticized in legends and songs, he is often depicted as the perfect Christian knight.