HIP/Art Resource, NY

A Christian crusader jousts with a Muslim fighter in a 14th-century illuminated manuscript known as the Luttrel Psalter. Often interpreted as depicting a joust between Richard I (the Lionhearted) and Saladin, it shows a demonized opponent to the Crusader. Saladin, one of the greatest Muslim heroes, and Richard I, the consummate Crusader, held a deep respect for each other throughout the Crusades, with both returning victorious several times.