Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY

Richard I, the Lionhearted (1157–1199), King of England, led the Third Crusade and became one of the most widely romanticized figures of medieval times. He was a popular and gifted leader who captured Cyprus and won a victory against Saladin at Arsuf. Although his main goal—the capture of Jerusalem—eluded him, Richard nevertheless negotiated a peace with Saladin in 1192 that allowed Christians free access to all holy places and retained for the Crusaders possession of the coast and the town of Acre, which they would hold for a hundred years. He is buried in the abbey of Notre Dame in Fontevrault-l’Abbaye, France.