Hulton-Deutsch Collection/Corbis

Excavator and rebuilder of Knossos Arthur Evans began excavations in 1900 with Scottish archaeologist Duncan McKenzie. Evans coined the term “Minoan,” naming the civilization he was uncovering for King Minos, who supposedly ruled the island of Crete. Through an extensive and thorough excavation, Evans and his team uncovered the palace and frescoes, as well as Linear A and Linear B tablets. His restoration of the palace and some of the frescoes is still controversial. He is pictured holding a bull’s-head rhyton (ceremonial drinking cup) made of steatite and decorated with gemstones.