Rachel Graff and Slava Pirsky

“THAT THEY MIGHT HAVE PLACES OF REFUGE,” the residents of ‘Ethri built a complex of chambers underneath the village. They cut stepped or vertical shafts that were designed to be blocked by slabs to conceal openings in the floors. The chambers were not just for cowering from the Roman wrath. We know from Cassius Dio that they were used as places where the villagers could “meet unobserved under ground” and plan their counterattacks against the army as active participants in the revolt.