Amos Kloner/Israel Department of Antiquities and Museums

PROTECTION FOR THE REBELS of the Bar-Kokhba Revolt came in many forms: underground complexes under villages like the ones at ‘Ethri (see Village Razed, Rebel Beheaded), natural caves and purposely cut borrows, such as the one shown here found in the Shephelah, west of the central mountain ridge in Israel. These hiding places give an impression of a fearful public fleeing from the Roman legions, but evidence proves that the local population fought back hard enough to “shake the foundation of the Roman empire.”