Andreas Pangerl

Diplomata militaria, or military diplomas, granted Roman citizenship to foreign-born soldiers who had served Rome for 25 years. Several military diplomas, such as the one pictured, which was found in southern Turkey, bear witness to a massive conscription effort in Syria Palaestina between 133 and 135C.E. This recruitment was necessary to replenish the substantial troop losses that the Romans had suffered against Bar-Kokhba’s forces.