Nimatallah/Art Resource, NY

BAKING BREAD OR BREWING BEER? Because beer making closely resembles and involves bread making, and even uses many of the same tools, it is often difficult to distinguish the two in the archaeological record. Both took place in the domestic sphere and were closely associated with women. These women were not only in charge of production but often ran taverns where the beer was served. This painted wood model from Egypt (2565–2420 B.C.E.) depicts a woman filtering barley bread to make beer.