Photo by Ilan Sztulman/Used with permission of Jane Cahill

To manufacture beer, malted barley cakes were put in jars with water and the donut stoppers were then attached to the mouth of the jar with clay. The small holes in the center were covered with cloth to keep out impurities while allowing gas to escape during the fermentation process. An example of this is shown in situ above. The carbonized remains of crushed wheat were found in this tenth-century B.C.E. jar from Tell el-Hammah.