Émile Puech

Line 4 of Émile Puech’s reconstruction of the Qeiyafa Ostracon refers to the “establishment of a monarchy” (א[ד]מ ושרמ יסד םלכ; “king” is circled in red. Puech regards this as alluding to the institution of Saul or David’s reign, more probably Saul’s. If true, this would be the only archaeological reference to King Saul and his reign. Line 2 mentions delivering justice in a manner different from that of a judge (“judge” [שפט] is circled in green.