Michael C. Luddeni

SIGNS OF ABUNDANCE. Despite little rainfall, the kikkar was well watered in ancient times by the annual flooding of the Jordan River, together with seasonal runoff carried by streams coming down from the Transjordanian highlands to the east. In addition, a significant aquifer beneath the kikkar percolates to the surface at numerous fresh-water springs spread across the plain and throughout the surrounding hills. During the Hellenistic and Roman periods, these spring waters were tapped and carried to surrounding sites by aqueducts, including this well-preserved example that runs near the base of Tall el-Hammam.