Institute for Antiquity and Christianity, Claremont, California

NAG HAMMADI CODICES. Discovered in 1945, the Nag Hammadi Library consists of 12 leather-bound volumes, plus eight leaves from a 13th book. Dated to the mid-fourth century C.E., these codices contain more than 50 ancient texts written in Coptic—with some of the texts themselves dated as early as the second century C.E. The texts at Nag Hammadi describe a variety of Gnostic viewpoints. Some of these Christian Gnostic texts present stories and views of Jesus that differ—and sometimes contradict—the New Testament. Since Christian Gnosticism was declared a heresy by the Church in the fourth century C.E., these differences are not surprising.