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Dura-Europas sits above the Euphrates River near Syria’s eastern border with Iraq. Seleucid Greeks founded the city and named it Europos around 300 B.C.E. Local people alternatively called the site Dura, which means “the fortress” in Aramaic. Situated between the western and eastern empires of the day, Dura was a desirable border site. First the Parthians conquered Dura; then the Romans took control of it. In 256 C.E. the Sassanids sacked Dura-Europos—then under Roman rule. After this, the site was abandoned.