FOUND AMONG DEBRIS from the Roman destruction of Jerusalem in 70 C.E., this Greek inscription from the late first century B.C.E. or the early first century C.E. commemorates the founding of a synagogue. It begins, “Theodotos son of Vettenos, priest and archisynagogos (i.e., synagogue head), son of an archisynagogos, grandson of an archisynagogos, built the synagogue for the reading of the law and teaching of the commandments.”