Sonia Halliday Photographs

Library of Celsus at Ephesus. Thanks to restoration efforts begun in 1970 by an Austrian team, the facade of the three-storey Library of Celsus offers visitors their most impressive glimpse of the ancient city’s grandeur.

According to inscriptions on its steps, the library was built in 110 A.D., after Paul’s time. However, Ephesus was an established center of scholarship long before Paul arrived there, and he enjoyed the city’s atmosphere of receptiveness to inquiry, debate and new ideas.