“The Circumcision of Christ” by Flemish painter Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640) illustrates the testimony of Luke 2:21 that Jesus was circumcised on the eighth day after his birth, in accordance with Abraham’s covenant with God (Genesis 17:12) and Mosaic Law (Leviticus 12:3). The question of whether gentile converts to Christianity had to be circumcised became a serious point of contention in the early Church. Although the Apostolic Council ruled that circumcision was not required of gentile converts, the issue apparently continued to fester, dividing the Church between Jewish Christians and gentile Christians.