Ancient Biblical Manuscript Center/Courtesy Israel Antiquities Authority

“The Son of God” text from the Dead Sea Scrolls. Technically known as 4Q246, this fragment includes the phrases “Son of God” and “Son of the Most High.” These are the first known references to these terms in a messianic context (Psalm 2 contains the concept of being God’s son, but messianism is lacking). The Gospel of John, James Charlesworth writes, inherited the titles “Son of Man” and “Son of the Most High” from Palestinian Judaism and perhaps from the Dead Sea Scrolls.